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IBM 3211 Printer 
and 3811 Control Unit 
Systems Component Description 



This reference publication describes the 321 1 Printer and 
the 381 1 Control Unit used on input/output channels 
provided by processing systems. The manual is designed for 
those having a basic knowledge of programming and 
computer operation. 

Described are the features, speeds (including formulas), 
type arrays, carriage operations, suggested error-recovery 
procedures, programming and operating information, and 
the IBM 3216 Interchangeable Train Cartridge. The 
programming information includes details of storage areas, 
addressing, and the commands and coding for each 
operation. 

For additional information, refer to the Bibliography of 
the system to which the 321 1 Printer is attached. 

For additional specifications on forms, refer to the 
Systems Reference Library manual, Form-Design 
Considerations-System Printers, GA24-3488. 



mm 



Preface 



Use this manual with the systems manual for the input/output 
channel associated with the IBM 321 1 Printer. 

Any of the system's functions that initiate printer 
operations to the channel are described in the systems 
manual. 



First Edition (June 1970) 

Changes are continually made to the information herein; any such changes will be 
reported in subsequent revisions or Technical Newsletters. 

Requests for copies of IBM publications should be made to your IBM representative 
or to the IBM branch office serving your locality. 

This manual has been prepared by the IBM Systems Development Division, Product 
Publications, Dept. 171, P.O. Box 6, Endicott, N.Y. 13760. A form is provided at 
the back of this publication for readers' comments. If the form has been removed, 
comments may be sent to the above-mentioned address. 

© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 1970 



Contents 



3211 Printer and 3811 Control Unit Component 

Description 5 

INTRODUCTION 5 

3216 Interchangeable Train Cartridge 5 

Universal Character set 5 

Program-Controlled Carriage 5 

Power Stacker 5 

Automatic Forms-Thickness Adjustment 5 

Motorized Cover 5 

PRINTING METHOD 6 

FORMS AND SPEED CONSIDERATIONS 7 

PRINT TRAIN SETS 8 

CARRIAGE PERFORMANCE 8 

RIBBON 9 

Programming Information 10 

IBM 3811 CONTROL UNIT OPERATION 10 

Storage Areas 10 

Channel Codes 10 

Storage Addressing 12 

CHANNEL OPERATIONS AND CONTROLS 12 

Channel Communications 12 



Commands 12 

STATUS BYTE 17 

Status Byte Format . . 17 

SENSE INFORMATION 18 

Sense Byte Reset 18 

Sense Byte 0: Summary 18 

Sense Byte 1: Programming 19 

Sense Byte 2: Mechanical 20 

Sense Byte 3: Electrical 20 

Suggested Error- Recovery Procedures ...... 23 

Sense Byte 23 

ERROR-RECOVERY PRIORITY 25 

Operating Information 26 

Keys and Lights 26 

Manual Controls 28 

Interlocks 29 

Appendix 30 

ERROR-RECOVERY PROCEDURE SUMMARY . . . .30 

Index 31 



Abbreviations 



CB 


circuit breaker 


1pm 


CCW 


Channel Command Word 


Min. 


CE 


channel end 


mm 


Char 


character 


ms 


CPU 


Central Processing Unit 


PBAR 


CSW 


Channel Status Word 


PEC 


DE 


device end 


PL 


EBCDIC 


Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange 


PLB 




Code 


PLC 


ERP 


Error Recovery Procedure 


PSE 


FCAR 


Forms Control Address Register 


R 


FCB 


Forms Control Buffer 


SLI 


Hex 


hexadecimal 


ucs 


I/O 


input/output 


UCSAR 


L 


left 


UCSB 

Xfer 



lines per minute 

minimum 

millimeter 

millisecond 

Print Buffer Address Register 

Print Error Check 

Print Line 

Print Line Buffer 

Print Line Complete 

Print Scan Emitter 

Right 

Suppress Length Indication 

Universal Character Set 

Universal Character Set Address Register 

Universal Character Set Buffer 

Transfer 




Figure 1. IBM 3211 Printer and 3811 Control Unit 



3211 Printer and 3811 Control Unit Component 
Description 



The IBM 321 1 Printer (Figure 1) is a high-speed printer 
with speeds of 2,000 lines per minute, single spacing, 
using a 48-position character set. 

The printer depends upon the 381 1 Control Unit and the 
using system for its operation. The control unit, attached 
to the 321 1 printer, contains the electronic circuitry to 
adapt the printer to the System/360 I/O channel provided 
by the processing system. In addition to the high-speed 
printing, other features of the printer are: 

3216 Interchangeable Train Cartridge 

Universal Character Set 

Program-Controlled Carriage 

Power Stacker 

Automatic Forms-Thickness Control 

Motorized Cover 



PROGRAM-CONTROLLED CARRIAGE 

The vertical format for each form is stored in the control 
unit by the program. Forms movement (spacing and 
skipping) is initiated by the program in accordance with 
the commands. Line feeding, 6 or 8 lines per inch, is 
also controlled by the stored format. 



POWER STACKER 

The power stacker both advances and stacks the forms 
for optimum high-speed forms movement according to 
the thickness of the forms. Stacking is adversely affected 
by high humidity. 



3216 INTERCHANGEABLE TRAIN CARTRIDGE 

The 3216 interchangeable train cartridge contains an endless 
train of 432 characters. The Extended Binary Coded 
Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) permits using up 
to 254 different graphics (alphabetic, numeric* and special 
characters) on a print train. 



AUTOMATIC FORMS-THICKNESS ADJUSTMENT 

The automatic forms-thickness control adjusts the platen 
for the correct clearance for the forms used. This assures 
maximum print quality and maintains sufficient clearance 
for high-speed paper movement. 



UNIVERSAL CHARACTER SET 

The universal character set permits optimizing the character 
arrangement to achieve maximum printing speeds. This 
feature allows selecting the characters best suited for 
maximum speed for an application. 



MOTORIZED COVER 

The cover on the printer gives controlled access to the 
forms transport area. When a forms-check condition (end 
of form, jam, or stacker full) occurs, the cover automatically 
rises to alert the operator that attention is required. This 
cover can also be raised by program control. 



Introduction 5 



Printing Method 



The train of type characters moves in front of the print 
hammers (Figure 2) and successively presents every 
character to each hammer. The control unit identifies 
each character as it becomes aligned with each hammer to 
determine whether or not that character is the one to be 
printed in that position. When the desired character is in 
position where it should print, the control unit causes the 
print hammer to fire. The hammer drives the type against 
the ribbon, paper, and platen to print the character on the 
form. The horizontal spacing is ten characters to the inch 
(25,4 mm). 



Handle 



Cartridge - Plate Assembly 




Figure 2. Print Train Schematic (48-Chaxacter Set) 
6 3211 Printer and 3 8 1 1 Control Unit 



Forms and Speed Considerations 



The 3211 Printer accommodates marginally punched, 
continuous forms. Up to four-part forms are recommended. 
Multi-part forms in excess of either four parts or .020-inch 
(0,50 mm) thickness should be tested to ensure satisfactory 
performance. Consult the local IBM sales representative 
concerning unique multi-part forms that are non-uniform 
in thickness due to variations in ply widths, spot carbon, 
envelope carriers, etc. 

To provide optimum print quality, an automatic forms- 
thickness control is provided. The maximum forms 
thickness, or equivalent, must be exposed to the forms- 
thickness sensor located about 1 inch (25 mm) above print 
positions 9 to 1 1 . Thickness variation in the form beyond 
.003 inch (0,076 mm) can affect print quality and cause 
machine damage. Horizontal fastenings over .005 inch 
(0,13 mm) thicker than the sense area should be skipped 
past the print area. 

Multi-part forms, including carbons, should be securely 
fastened, preferably on both edges. However, if a single- 
edge fastening method is used, the left edge must be 
fastened. For additional specifications on forms, refer to 
the Systems Reference Library manual, Form-Design 
Considerations-System Printers, GA24-3488. 



Forms width can range from 3-1/2 to 18-3/4 inches (88,9 
to 476,3 mm); form length from 3 to 22.5 inches (76,2 to 
571 ,5 mm) for 8-line-per-inch, or 24 inches (609,6 mm) 
for 6-line-per-inch spacing. For replenishing forms in a 
continuous feeding operation, the forms tractors must be 
cleared and the new form positioned as in initial setup. An 
indicator establishes the first line of print, because 14 lines 
must be printed before the first line is visible to the operator. 
In positioning forms, the swing gate must be opened to move 
the form backward. 

The printing speed depends on the arrangement of the 
characters within the type array and the number of arrays 
in the 432-character print train. Optimizing the universal 
character set permits each application to attain maximum 
printing speeds depending upon the frequency of the 
characters in the print train. Speeds up to 2,500 lines per 
minute with single spacing are possible. 



The formula for the print rate (assuming equal distribution 
of characters) is: 

60,000 (0,4427A + 8.75) equals the minimum rate in 
lines per minute. 

Where A=432/f = the length of the array in characters 
and f is the number of arrays in the train. 

The following chart lists the minimum line rates that can be 
achieved for various train configurations. 



Length of 
Each Array" 

27 

36 

48 

54 

72 
108 
144 
216 
432 



Number of Repeated 
Arrays in Train 

16 
12 

9 

8 

6 

4 

3 

2 

1 



Minimum Print 
Rateflpm)** 

2500 (limited)** 

2430 

2000 

1837 

1477 

1060 

827 

574 

300 



*An array is a complete group of characters that appears one or 
more times in the print train. The composition of the array can 
vary greatly in both the number and kinds of characters. By 
choosing those characters most frequently used and by eliminating 
those never used, arrays can be tailored to produce optimum 
printing speeds. Numeric arrays, for example, with limited 
alphabetic characters or special symbols, are shorter and repeat 
more often in the train, resulting in higher printing speeds. 
Moreover, with the UCS (Universal Character Set) feature, 
characters need not be represented equally within the array. UCS 
permits unlimited variations of character arrangements within the 
train (because the train image is stored in the UCS buffer),, again 
permitting greater frequency of most-used characters with 
accompanying, increases in printing speeds. The 3211 is ideally 
suited for high-speed printing operations (such as listings) in which 
extended skips are minimal. 

**The minimum printing speeds presented here are worst-case 
conditions. In actual practice, printing rates exceed these figures, 
depending on the choice of characters in the train. Repeated sets 
of fewer than 36 characters are not advisable as the 3211 printer 
is interlocked so as not to sustain a print rate in excess of 2500 
lpm. Both the number of graphics in a set and the repeatability 
of high-usage characters on the train directly affect the average 
line rate. When a preferred character set is optimized for a 
given application, throughput is increased. However, if the 
same train is used for a job requiring frequent use of graphics 
that are not repeated as often, the throughput decreases. 



Introduction 7 



Anticipated Throughput Rate with Special Cartridges* 



Train 
Sets 

Pll 
Gil 
Til 



Char 

60 

64 

120 



Array 
Size 

108 
108 
144 



Min 
Ipm 

1060 
1060 

827 



Expected 
Scans 

54.9 

57.0 

129.7 



Expected 
Ipm 

1815 

1765 

906 



♦Subject to variation depending on the specific application of 
more than 48 characters per array. 



Expected 1pm = 



60,000 



0.4427 A + 8.75 ms 



Where A = the number of scans (see table) needed to 
print a line. The time interval between the presentation 
of two successive characters to a print position is 
called scan time. 

Note: The throughput rating of a printer is based upon a 
combined write and Space 1 (09) wherein the data transfer 
for the new line should be completed during the carriage- 
space operation. This means that, in order to maintain the 
compiled rates, the program must load the print line (PL) 
buffer within the 7.08 ms after device end has occurred. 



Print Train Sets 



The print train sets (Figure 3) are available in five different 
arrangements. 

Arrangement A 11 (Standard Commercial) consists of 48 
graphics in 9 identical arrays. 

Arrangement H 1 1 (Standard Scientific) consists of 48 
graphics in 9 identical arrays. 

Arrangement G 11 (ASCII) consists of 64 graphics in 
4 identical arrays of 108 characters. 



Arrangement P 11 (PL 1 ) consists of 60 graphics in 4 
identical arrays of 108 characters. 

Arrangement Til (Text Printing) consists of 1 20 graphics 
in 3 identical arrays or 144 characters. 

Note: The print trains using the 48-character set give speeds 
of 2,000 lines per minute with single spacing; however, the 
trains that use character arrangements of more than 48 
characters per set reduce the speed in proportion to the 
number of additional characters and the application. 



Carriage Performance 



The stored-program-controlled carriage of the 321 1 printer 
moves paper at 90 inches per second after initial acceleration. 
The following chart lists approximate carriage timing for 
moving forms up to ten (10) line spaces. For forms 
movement over ten lines, use the formula for calculating 
the approximate carriage time. 



No of Lines 


6 Lines/inch 


8 Lines/Inch 


1 


8.75 ms 




8.75 ms 


2 


14.4 ms 




11.80 ms 


3 


20.00 ms 




16.00 ms 


4 


25.60 ms 




20.20 ms 


5 


31.20 ms 




24.40 ms 


6 


36.80 ms 




28.60 ms 


7 


42.40 ms 




32.80 ms 


8 


44.50 ms 




35.00 ms 


_2. 


44.50 ms 




35.00 ms 


10 


45.60 ms 




34.00 ms 


Over 10 


45.6 + 1.86 


ms (N-10) 


34+ 1.39 ms (N-10) 



Note: Limitations on successive carriage command. The 
time between consecutive carriage immediate commands 
is carriage time plus 1 1 .5 ms. 



8 3211 Printer and 381 1 Control Unit 



A1 1 (48 Graphics 


— Standard Commercial) 
















1234 5678 90 #@ /STU 


VWX Y 


Z & , % 


JKLM 


NOPQ 


R-$* 


ABCD 


EFGH 


l + .n 



H11 (48 


Graphics 


— Standard Scientific) 


















1 234 


5678 


90=' 


/STU 


VWXY 


Z&,( 


JKLM 


NOPQ 


R- 


-$* 


ABCD 


EFGH 


l + .) 



G11 (64 Graphics 


- ASCH) 


Arrangement consists of 4 


arrays of 108 characters. Only the first is 


shown. 




0N(C 


* K5- 


LJDB 


'14, 


Ql MW 


3P/7 


OU_. 


H % F X 


<8 6G 


+ TY; 


29 VZ 


R#:E 


=&AS 


)$ ON 


(C* K 


5-LJ 


DB. 1 


4.QI 


MW3P 


/70 U 


I .H " 


FX] 8 


6G [T 


Y\29 


V>R# 


-iE=@ 


AS) ? 





















P1 1 (60 Graphics — PL1 ) Arrangement consists of 4 arrays of 108 characters. Only on 8 



ON (C 


*K5 - 


LJDB 


'14, 


Ql MW 


3P/7 


ou_. 


H % F X 


<8 6G 


+ TY ; 


29VZ 


R#:E 


= &AS 


)$0 N 


( C *K 


5 - LJ 


DB' 1 


4 ,QI 


MW3P 


/7Q U 


_. H% 


F X< 8 6 G ] T 


Y" 29 


V>R# 


-iE=@ 


AS ) ? 





















T1 1 (120 Graphics — Text Printing) Arrangement consists of 3 arrays of 144 characters. Only the first is shown. 



6<> 



a AC i 



o E 8n 



OstL 



N= . 7 



F PS 



Md B4 



, 1 c9 



rhUu 



m p 



TlfY 



H3GJ 



be R g 



XQ12 



Vy/ 



WK(5 



) + w 



Dk$ v 



06# x 



ZA»' 



qE8 



«. jt r 



"■&.7 



?z j S 



%] [ 4 



} { ;9 



2 i + 



( @< 



Tl 



3 " 



>eR> 



°± 12 



'«#- 



9 76 



- . )* 



D + I i 



Note: Trains G1 1 , P1 1, and T1 1 have different appearing type assemblies. The reason for this is, 
a number of representative customer jobs have been analyzed by computer. This analysis 
tabulated the character usage and developed optimized trains for these character sets. 

Figure 3. Type Arrangement for Print Train Sets 



Ribbon 

The 321 1 printer uses a general-purpose, ribbon. The 
ribbon life is reduced the first few months of usage when 
a new cartridge is installed. This is due to a run-in period 
on the new type faces. 



Introduction 9 



Programming Information 



IBM 3811 Control Unit Operation 

The control unit contains controls and storage areas (odd- 
bit parity) for control signals, printer addressing, command 
decoding, status and sense information, and data handling. 



STORAGE AREAS 



Print Line Buffer 

Print line buffer (PLB) has 132 print positions for a line of 
data to be printed. A special feature is available to increase 
this buffer to 1 50 positions. Each position contains a data 
byte and four check bits. 



Data Byte 

This byte consists of eight bits plus an odd-parity check bit. 



Print Line Complete Bit 

This bit is set for each position for which a print compare, 
a blank, or null character occurs. When a print complete 
bit has been set in every position, the printing of the line 
is complete. 



Universal Character Set Buffer 

The universal character set buffer (USCB) has 432 positions 
of eight (8) bits plus an odd-parity check bit. Each position 
can contain any one of the printable graphics. Two codes, 
null (Hex 00) and space (Hex 40), are assigned as space 
characters. 

This buffer is program-loaded from the Central Processing 
Unit (CPU) by the load UCSB command. The character 
codes are stored in the same sequence as the characters on 
the train. During print operations, this buffer is scanned 
and compared to corresponding characters in the print 
line buffer. 



Forms Control Buffer 

The forms control buffer (FCB) (Figure 4) has 1 80 positions 
for storing 12 channel codes. Each position represents a 
print line. The position corresponding to the last line of 
the form must contain the end-of-form flag bit. 



CHANNEL CODES 

The channel codes 1 through 1 2 (Figure 5) use four bits 
numerically weighted 1,2,4 and 8 for forms positioning. 



Print Error Check Bit 

This bit is turned on if a parity error is detected in the 
PLB during loading or printing, or if a print magnet 
malfunction occurs. The check condition is stored for each 
buffer position that is in error. 



Parity Check Bit 

Signifies even parity in the PLB data bits. {See "Check 
Read.") 



Flag Bit 

The flag bit is in position 3 of the EBCDIC code structure 
{see Figure 4). This bit specifies the spacing of the carriage 
and the length of the form. A flag bit in the first address 
position indicates 8-lines-per-inch spacing; no flag bit 
indicates 6-line-per-inch spacing. A flag bit in the storage 
position corresponding to the number of lines of the form 
returns the FCB to the starting position or the first address 
position for the next form. 



10 3211 Printer and 381 1 Control Unit 



01 



02 



[01 


! 


! ! 


00!02!00!00!00!00!00!00!00 








00!00!00!00] 


1 
[ 00 












2 





! ! 


00!00!00!00!00!00!00!00!00 





00 


00!00!00!00] 



2 1 



Positions 4 



[0^!0^!0^!0^!OJO!0^!0^!0^!0^!0^!0^!0^!0^!0^!0^!0^!0^!0^!0^!0_C ; L 

4 1 Positions 6 || 

[ 00 I 00 I I I I 1 ! I 00 I 00 I I I I I 00 I 00 ! !00I00!00!00] 

6 1 .|§^ Positions 8 

[ ! I 1 ! ! -6 J ! i 00 ! ! ! 00 1 ! ! ! ! 00 ! ! ! ] 

8 1 :|||- Positions 1 

[ 00 ! 0_0 ! 0_0 ! 0_0 ! 00 ! 0_ojv|| I Q I 00 I 00 I I lOOIOjIOOIOOIOOIOOIOOIOOl 
1 1 *■'-*. Positions 1 2 

[00!00!00!0_0!00!0 0||$|o I0OI0010OI00100I00IO0I0OIOOIOOIOO10O1O0] 

1 2 1 ± -*■■*• Positions 1 4 

[OOIOOIOOIOOIOOIO-OIQOIOOIOOIOOIOOIOOIOOIOOIOOIOOIOOIOOIOOIOQ] 

1 4 1 ' : ~-*-g Positions 1 6 

[00!00!00!00!00 *&$'} ! 00 ! 00 I ! 00 ! 00 ! 00 ! 00 ! ! 00 I 00 ! 00 ! ! ] 



1 6 1 



Positions 1 8 



10 



Position 1 with Hex 01 indicates channel 1 for the first line of the heading. 

Position 7 with Hex 02 indicates channel 2 for the first line in the body form. 

Position 60 with Hex OC indicates channel 12 for the last line of printing. 

Position 66 with Hex 10 indicates the end of form with a flag bit. 

This illustration shows the coding for an 1 1 -inch form using the channels 1 , 2, 
and 12 with the flag bit for the end-of-form. 

Figure 4. Forms-Control Buffer (FCB)-Layout of Form 



Channel Codes 


Binary Code 


Hex 


Channel 


1 


2 3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


(Position) 




8 4 


2 1 


8 


4 


2 


1 


(Value) 

























Space (Null) 

















1 


1 


Channel 1 














1 





2 


Channel 2 














1 


1 


3 


Channel 3 











1 








4 


Channel 4 











1 





1 


5 


Channel 5 











1 


1 





6 


Channel 6 











1 


1 


1 


7 


Channel 7 








1 











8 


Channel 8 








1 








1 


9 


Channel 9 


0» 





1 





1 





A 


Channel 10 








1 





1 


1 


B 


Channel 11 








1 


1 








C 


Channel 12 



::: "0C 



Figure 5. Channel Code 



Programming Information 11 



Parity Bit 

A parity bit is added to each channel code having an 
even-number bit structure. 



STORAGE ADDRESSING 



Universal Character Set Address Register 

The universal character set address register (UCSAR) 
sequentially addresses all 432 positions of the universal 
character set buffer. During the printing operation, this 
register is synchronized with the print train as the graphic 
characters are aligned with print position 1 . 



Print Buffer Address Register 

The_print buffer address register (PBAR) can address 132 
positions of the print line buffer. With the special feature 
for increasing the print positions to 150, additional positions 
are added to the PBAR. 



Forms Control Address Register 

The forms control address register (FCAR) addresses 1 80 
positions of the forms control buffer. This register advances 
until the flag bit indicating the end-of-form is detected. 



Channel Operations And Controls 



The control unit is connected to the processor by the IBM 
System/360 I/O interface cable. Signals and commands 
received from the channel are interpreted and sequenced 
for executing the printing and spacing operations. 



Carriage Control 

Carriage operations can be initiated by individual commands 
(control) (Figure 7) as well as by write command modifiers. 



CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS 

The control unit operates on either the selector or multi- 
plexer channel. The program initiates all operations by 
issuing a Start I/O instruction to the control unit. The 
first byte in the channel command word (CCW) defines the 
operation. The operation sequence is: initial selection, 
data transfer, and ending. 



COMMANDS 

Figures 6, 7, and 8 show the commands from the processor 
to the control unit. 



Initializing and Diagnostic 

These commands (Figure 8) are required for initializing 
various functions within the control unit and for control 
and diagnostic purposes. These commands cause no printing 
or carriage motion. 



Test I/O 

The Test I/O command transfers pending status information 
from the control unit to the channel. If no status infor- 
mation is available, a zero status byte is sent to the channel. 
A busy status is indicated if an operation is still being 
executed and no end status is available. 



Write 

The write commands (Figure 6) transfer data from the 
channel to the control unit and initiate a printing operation. 
A write command with a modifier bit initiates spacing of 
1 , 2, or 3 lines, or skipping to a carriage channel, after 
printing a line. 



Sense 

The sense command transfers six sense bytes to the channel. 
These bytes contain detail or special diagnostic information 
about the unit-check bit in the status byte. Issue a sense 
command whenever a unit-check condition exists. 



12 3211 Printer and 381 1 Control Unit 



Write Commands 


Binary 


Code 




Hex 


Function 


1 2 


3 


4 5 6 


7 















1 


1 


Write without Spacing 








1 


1 


9 


Write and Space 1 





1 





1 


1 1 


Write and Space 2 





1 


1 


1 


1 9 


Write and Space 3 


1 





1 


1 


8 9 


Write and Skip to Channel 1 


1 


1 





1 


9 1 


Write and Skip to Channel 2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


9 9 


Write and Skip to Channel 3 


1 1 








1 


A 1 


Write and Skip to Channel 4 


1 1 





1 


1 


A 9 


Write and Skip to Channel 5 


1 1 


1 





1 


B 1 


Write and Skip to Channel 6 


1 1 


1 


1 


1 


B 9 


Write and Skip to Channel 7 


1 1 








1 


C 1 


Write and Skip to Channel 8 


1 1 





1 


1 


C 9 


Write and Skip to Channel 9 


1 1 


1 





1 


D 1 


Write and Skip to Channel 10 


1 1 


1 


1 


1 


D 9 


Write and Skip to Channel 1 1 


1 1 1 








1 


E 1 


Write and Skip to Channel 12 



Note: Write commands perform the required carriage functions after the line 
is printed. 

Figure 6. Write Commands with Carriage Controls 



Carriage Control Commands 


Command Byte 




Hex 


Function 




Binary 












12 


3 


4 


5 


6 7 














1 





1 1 





B 


Space 1 Immediate 





1 








1 1 


1 


3 


Space 2 Immediate 





1 


1 





1 1 


1 


B 


Space 3 Immediate 


1 











1 1 


8 


3 


Skip Immediate to Channel 0* 


10 





1 





1 1 


8 


B 


Skip Immediate to Channel 1 


1 


1 








1 1 


9 


3 


Skip Immediate to Channel 2 


1 


1 


1 





1 1 


9 


B 


Skip Immediate to Channel 3 


1 1 











1 1 


A 


3 


Skip Immediate to Channel 4 


1 1 





1 





1 1 


A 


B 


Skip Immediate to Channel 5 


1 1 


1 








1 1 


B 


3 


Skip Immediate to Channel 6 


1 1 


1 


1 





1 1 


B 


B 


Skip Immediate to Channel 7 


1 1 











1 1 


C 


3 


Skip Immediate to Channel 8 


1 1 





1 





1 1 


C 


B 


Skip Immediate to Channel 9 


1 1 


1 








1 1 


D 


3 


Skip Immediate to Channel 10 


1 1 


1 


1 





1 1 


D 


B 


Skip Immediate to Channel 11 


1 1 1 











1 1 


E 


3 


Skip Immediate to Channel 12 



* Special command used during error recovery (see Bit Sense Byte 1 ) command. 
Figure 7. Carriage Control Commands 



Programming Information 13 



Initializing and Diagnostic Commands 


Command Byte 




Hex 


Function 








Binary 












1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 7 





























Test I/O 


(Control) 














1 





4 


Sense 


(Diagnostic) 

















1 1 


3 


No Op 


(Immediate) 


1 1 


1 


1 


1 





1 1 


F B 


Load UCSB 


(Control) 


1 














1 1 


4 3 


Fold 


(Immediate) 





1 











1 1 


2 3 


Unfold 


(Immediate) 


1 


1 











1 1 


6 3 


Load FCB 


(Control) 


1 


1 


1 








1 1 


7 3 


Block Data Check 


(Immediate) 


1 


1 


1 


1 





1 1 


7 B 


Allow Data Check 


(Immediate) 

















1 


2 


Read PLB 


(Diagnostic) 











1 





1 


A 


Read USCB 


(Diagnostic) 








1 








1 


1 2 


Read FCB 


(Diagnostic) 














1 


1 


6 


Check Read 


(Diagnostic) 














1 


1 


5 


Diagnostic Write 


(Diagnostic) 


1 


1 





1 





1 1 


6 B 


Raise Cover 


(Immediate) 











1 


1 


1 


E 


Diagnostic Gate 


(Immediate) 



Figure 8. Initializing and Diagnostic Commands 



No-Op 

The No-Op command performs no function. No-Op is 
treated as a command immediate in which the status byte 
contains channel-end and device-end bits at the end of the 
initial selection sequence. 



Unfold 

The unfold command stops the folding operation {see 
"Commands, Fold") and returns the printer to normal 
operation. 



Load UCSB 

The load UCSB command is used to load the universal 
character set buffer with the assigned code for each graphic 
in the same sequence as on the train. If fewer than 432 
characters are loaded, the control unit indicates a load 
check. If loading more than 432 characters is attempted, 
the channel notes an incorrect length record by setting 
channel status word (CSW) bit 41 . The suppress link 
indication (SLI) bit 34 in the channel command word 
(CCW) should not be masked by the program when the 
buffer is loaded. 



Fold 

The fold command folds the entire first, second, and 
third quadrants of the extended binary coded decimal 
interchange code into the fourth quadrant (Figure 9), 
causing the compare circuits in the control unit to ignore 
bit positions and 1 when comparing the characters from 
UCSB and the PLB storage areas. Folding continues until 
the unfold command is received or until the power to the 
unit is turned off. 



Load FCB 

The load FCB command loads the forms control buffer 
with the carriage codes for the line spacing required. A 
flag bit in the first address position sets the carriage space 
to eight lines per inch. The absence of the flag bit sets the 
carriage spacing to six lines per inch. The last line position 
loaded must contain a flag bit to indicate end of form. 
After position 1 has been loaded, detecting a flag bit 
sets channel end and device end in the status byte and 
terminates the operation. An invalid channel code or a 
failure to load the FCB with a flag bit in the last line 
position results in a unit-check status bit and a load-check 
condition in sense byte 0. Any line position not containing 
a channel code should be assigned a space (null) code. 
After the load FCB command has been executed, the forms 
control address register is set to the first address position. 



Block Data Check 

The block data check command blocks setting of data 
check (bit 4) in sense byte (unprintable character in 
the print line buffer). Block data check remains on until 
reset by allow data check command, a UCSB parity check, 
when the UCSB character is not repetitive, or until power 
is turned off. 



14 321 1 Printer and 3811 Control Unit 







First Quadrant 






Second C 


Quadrant 






Third Quadrant 






Fourth Quadrant 








00 


01 


10 


11 




1 Bit Positions 0,1 




00 


01 


10 


11 


00 


01 


10 


11 


00 


01 


10 


11 


00 


01 


10 


11 


1 Bit Positions 2,3 


r-. s 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


| First Hexadecimal Digit 


wis 4, 5, 

exodecir 
ches 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 




















12 








12 


12 




12 


12 


12 




12 


12 










••= x § 




































8 "S t 




11 








11 


11 


11 




11 


11 


11 




11 








BitF 
Secc 
Digl 


































Digit Punches 










































S 




- - 


































A 






0000 





8-1 


ID 
NUL 


(D 


DS W 


<£> 


!@ 


^ 


HS5 


(!) 






i 


"'■"" : i 


"IS 


® 


© 


® 



8-1 






0001 


1 


1 






SOS 








/® 




a 


i 


liil 




A 


J 


© 


1 


1 






0010 


2 


2 






FS 












b 


k 


s 




B 


K 


s 


2 


2 






0011 


3 


3 




TM 














c 


1 


t 




C 


L 


T 


3 


3 






0100 


4 


4 


PF 


RES 


BYP 


PN 










d 


m 


u 




D 


M 


U 


4 


4 






0101 


5 


5 


HT 


NL 


LF 


RS 










e 


n 


V 




E 


N 


V 


5 


5 






0110 


6 


6 


LC 


BS 


EOB 


UC 










f 





w 




F 


O 


W 


6 


6 






0111 


7 


7 


DEL 


IL 


PRE 


EOT 










a 


P 


X 




G 


P 


X 


7 


7 






1000 


8 


8 


















h 


q 


y 


, . .:. 


H 


Q 


Y 


8 


8 






1001 


9 


8-1 


















' 


r 


z 




1 


R 


z 


9 


9 






1010 


A 


8-2 




CC 


SM 




<f 


1 


© 




















8-2 






1011 


B 


8-3 












$ 


» 


# 


















8-3 






1100 


C 


8-4 










J®' 


* 


% 


@ 


^jjjjjfoi 


jjV^Jjjij 


Ijjljj 












8-4 






1101 


D 


8-5 










( 


) 


_ 


■ 














8-5 






1110 


E 


8-6 










+ 


• 


> 


■ 










8-o 






1111 


F 


8-7 










1 


- 


? 


" 










8-7 








9 


9 


9 


9 


















9 


9 


9 


9 


' 






12 








12 








12 


12 




12 


12 


12 




12 


' Zone Punches 






11 








11 








11 


11 


11 




11 


11 


11 




| 
Card Hole Pattern 




























































© 12-0-9-8-1 




\$) No Punches 


© 12-0 


© 0-1 




^™/ On some chain or train 


© 12-11-9-8-1 
(?) 11-0-9-8-1 




© '2 
© 11. 


(S) H-0 
(jj) 0-8-2 


(5) 11-0-9-1 
(j?) 12-H 




configurations, the 
lozenge (n) is printed 
for this bit pattern, but 


(T) 12-11-0-9-8-1 




12-11-0 


© ° 

Special Graphic Characters 




this is nonstandard. 


Control Character Represer 


itations 










NUL Null 


SOS 


Start of Significance 










PF Punch Off 


FS 


Field Separator 


f Cent Sign 


Minus Sign, Hyphen 






HT Horizontal Tab 


BYP 


Period, Decimal Point 


/ Slash 






LC Lower Case 


LF 




< Less-than Sign 


, Comma 






DEL Delete 


EOG 


End of Block 


( Left Parenthesis 


% Percent 






TM Tape Mark 


PRE 


Prefix 


+ Plus Sign 


— Underscore 






RES Restore 


SM 


Set Mode 


1 Logical OR 


> Greater-than Sign 






NL New Line 


& Ampersand 


? Question Mark 






BS Backspace 


RS 


Reader Stop 
Upper Case 


1 Exclamation Point 


Colon 






IL Idle 

CC Cursor Control 


UC 
EOT 


$ Dollar Sign 
* Asterisk 


' Number Sign 
@ At Sign 






DS Digit Select 


SP 


Space 


) Right Parenthesis 


' Prime, Apostrophe 










; Semicolon 


= Equal Sign 


























I 


Logi 


col NOT 




" 


Quota 


Ion Mar 


K 











Figure 9. Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code and Quadrants 



Programming Information 15 



Allow Data Check 

The allow data check command resets the block-data-check 
condition and allows the control unit to set data check 
(bit 4) in sense byte after an unprintable character is 
detected in the PLB. 



ReadPLB 

The read PLB command, normally for diagnostic functions, 
transfers data in the PLB to the channel, where it may be 
analyzed or compared to the print line loaded. This com- 
mand reads out the eight data bits plus parity in the same 
bit allocation in which they were received, regardless of 
folding. 



set, indicating that a print compare was completed for the 
corresponding position or that the PLB contained a blank 
or null code. Bit position six (6) signifies that the print 
error check (PEC) bit had been set due to invalid parity or 
a hammer check for the corresponding print position. Bit 
seven (7) signifies that invalid parity was detected for the 
nine data bits in that PLB position. 



Diagnostic Write 

The diagnostic write command is similar to a write-without- 
spacing command, except that no printing occurs. Diagnostic 
write can be followed by a read PLB command for verifica- 
tion of the data-transfer and print-scan-control operations. 



Read UCSB 

The read UCSB, normally used for diagnostic purposes, 
transfers all 432 positions of the universal character set 
buffer to the channel. The transfer occurs in the same 
sequence and bit allocation as that for the buffer. 



Read FCB 

The read FCB command, normally for diagnostic purposes, 
transfers the carriage codes to the channel, where they may 
be analyzed or compared. The number of data bytes 
transferred is controlled by the count field in the CCW. 
For example, to check the carriage setting in the first 
address position for the presence or absence of a flag bit 
to determine the carriage space setting of six or eight lines 
per inch, set the count field to 1 . 

Note: To maintain vertical forms alignment, issue the 
read FCB command, only after skipping to a channel code 
stored in FCB address one. If read FCB is given at any 
other position, the form becomes misaligned because the 
FCB returns to address position one. 



Check Read 

This command transfers unique check information stored 
in each addressable position of the PLB to the channel. It 
is normally used for diagnostic purposes, such as fault 
isolation to an individual print position. Bit positions (zero) 
(0) through four (4) on bus-in are not used. Bit position 
five (5) signifies that the print line complete (PLC) bit was 



Raise Cover 

The raise cover command allows the programmer to raise 
the cover on the printer when he desires. The cover rises 
automatically when the forms check bit (bit 4, sense byte 1) 
occurs. This facilitates operator access to the machine when 
a forms-check condition occurs. (See "Keys and Lights, 
Form Check.") 



Diagnostic Gate 

The diagnostic gate command, for diagnostic purposes only, 
conditions the control unit to modify certain commands 
following the diagnostic gate command. The modification 
of the commands is : 

1 . Check Read: this is a setup to transfer via bus-in the 
8 bits of the forms control address register. 

2. Any Carriage Control: this sets a carriage scan latch. 
Now the sense command transfers via bus-in eight 
signals pertinent to the carriage operation every 8.96 us. 

3. Write without Spacing: this enables hammer-flight time 
measurement of the logic circuits. 

4. Diagnostic Write Command: this enables time measure- 
ment from the rise of the train home pulse to the rise 
of print scan emitter if the block data check latch 

was on; otherwise, the time measurement is from 
the rise of sync home emitter to the rise of the print 
scan emitter. 

5. Any Write Command (except without Spacing): this 
enables logic circuitry for measurement of the print 
scan emitter pulses. In this case, PLB data bits 7 and 6 
are used to control start and stop of time measurements, 
respectively. 



16 3211 Printer and 381 1 Control Unit 



Status Byte 



The status is presented to the channel under the following 
conditions. 

1 . During the initial selection sequence after the channel 
sends a command byte. 

2. After a printer operation ends because of an I/O 
interrupt, such as channel end after data transfer or 
device end after the completion of the mechanical 
portion of the operation. 

3. During an I/O interrupt operation initiated by the con- 
trol unit when the printer goes from not-ready to ready 
(device end is generated), or by activating the cancel key. 

4. During initial selection for a Test I/O instruction. 

5. To present any previously stacked status. 

A status condition is reset when accepted by the channel, 
except that: 

1 . Unit-check (bit 6) is not reset until the printer has been 
restored to ready after an intervention-required con- 
dition. 

2. Busy (bit 3) is not reset until device-end status is accepted 
by the channel. 



conditions, if any, accompany the busy indication. Busy 
is not presented to a Test I/O command if channel end or 
device end is part of the status. After device end is 
accepted, the printer becomes not busy. 



Bit 4 Channel End 

Channel-end status is presented to the channel after com- 
pleting a data transfer to or from the control unit. Channel 
end is also presented when a control command is accepted 
by the control unit. Channel end is not set if the com- 
mand is rejected during the initial selection sequence. 



Bit 5 Device End 

Device-end status is presented to the channel when a 
previous command has been completed. The control unit 
can accept another command after the status is accepted 
by the channel. Device end is also generated by a change 
from not-ready to ready or by the operation of the cancel 
key. Device end is not set if the command is rejected 
during the initial selection sequence. 



STATUS BYTE FORMAT 

Only bits 3 to 7 of the status byte are used. The contents 
of the status byte, except bit 6, are reset by a service-out 
response to status in, a system reset, selective reset, or a 
power-on reset. 



Bit 3 Busy 

Busy status is presented to the channel when the printer 
is executing a previous command or the control unit has 
an outstanding device-end condition in the status byte. 
Busy status is presented only at initial selection. Once 
the command has been accepted by the control unit, busy 
status is presented to any command until the outstanding 
device end has been accepted by the channel. Status 



Bit 6 Unit Check 

Unit-check status indicates that the printer requires pro- 
gram or operator intervention. A sense command should 
be given, and the sense data analyzed, to determine the 
cause and appropriate recovery procedure (see "Sense 
Byte"). The unit-check status bit can be presented at 
initial selection along with channel-end and/or device-end 
status. If unit check is set by intervention-required, it is 
not reset until the printer is restored to the ready condition. 



Bit 7 Unit Exception 

Unit-exception status indicates that the carriage control 
has sensed a channel 1 2 code in the forms control buffer 
during the execution of a carriage-space operation. Unit 
exception is not set during skip operations. 



Programming Information 17 



Sense Information 



When a sense command is issued, six bytes of sense infor- 
mation (Figure 10) are transferred to the channel. (Transfer 
time is 32 microseconds.) The four bytes used indicate the 
causes of unit checks and direct programming procedures. 



SENSE BYTE RESET 

Intervention-required (byte 0, bit 1) is reset only after the 
cause of the condition is corrected and the printer is made 
ready. All other sense bytes pertain to the last printer 
operation executed. These bytes are reset when any com- 
mand except Test I/O, Sense Command, or No Op is 
addressed to the printer, provided busy status (bit 3) is not 
indicated in the initial selection status byte. 



SENSE BYTE 0: SUMMARY 

(Byte 0, Bit 0) Command Reject 

This bit is set during initial selection when a command other 
than those defined for the printer is decoded. 



(Byte 0, Bit 1) Intervention Required 

The printer is not-ready because of one of the following 
conditions. 

1. Interlocks 

a. Carriage stop/release key ON (sets form check (byte 1 
bit 4). 

b. End of forms 

c. Stop key operated 

d. Single cycle key operated 

e. Vacuum (low, high, external) 

f. Stacker full 

g. Train cartridge improperly installed 
h. Print gate unlatched 

i. Electrical interlocks indicated on service panel 

1. CBtrip 

2. Power trip 

3. Thermal trip 

2. Print quality (byte 1 , bit 2) 

a. Platen failed to advance (byte 2, bit 3) 

b. Ribbon motion (byte 2, bit 6) 

3. Train overload (byte 2, bit 7) 

4. Forms check (byte 1 , bit 4) 
a. Forms jam (byte 2, bit 5) 



Sense Byte Summary Designations 




Byte Summary 




Byte 1 Programming 





Command Reject 





Command Retry 


1 


Intervention Required 


1 


Print Check 


2 


Bus-Out Check 


2 


Print Quality 


3 


Equipment Check 


3 


Line Position 


4 


Data Check 


4 


Forms Check 


5 


Buffer Parity Check 


5 


Command Suppress 


6 


Load Check 


6 


Mechanical Motion 


7 


Channel 9 


7 


Unassigned 




Byte 2 Mechanical 




Byte 3 Electrical 





Carriage Failed to Move 





UCSB Parity 


1 


Carriage Sequence Check 


1 


PLB Parity 


2 


Carriage Stop Check 


2 


FCB Parity 


3 


Platen Failed to Advance 


3 


Coil Protect 


4 


Platen Failed to Retract 


4 


Hammer Fire Check 


5 


Forms Jam 


5 


Service Aids 


6 


Ribbon Motion 


6 


UCSAR Sync Check 


7 


Train Overload 


7 


PSE Sync Check 





Byte 4 Future Options 




Byte 5 Future Options 



Figure 10. Sense Byte Designation Summary 



(Byte 0, Bit 2) Bus-Out Check 

This bit is set when the control unit receives a data or com- 
mand byte with even parity. If this occurs during initial 
selection, no printer operation is initiated. If this occurs 
during a write command data transfer, unit check is given 
with channel end and device end. This indicates that the 
command was not executed. 

If the error occurs during the execution of a load command, 
buffer loading continues and unit check is given with channel 
end and device end to indicate that the buffer was loaded 
improperly. 



(Byte 0, Bit 3) Equipment Check 

This bit is set by an equipment condition affecting the 
operation in process. The specific condition is further defined 
by the following. 

1 . Command retry (byte 1 , bit 0) 
a. PLB parity (byte 3, bit 1) 

2. Print check byte 1, bit 1) 

May have one or more of the following bits. 

a. Coil protect (byte 3, bit 3) 

b. Hammer fire check (byte 3, bit 4) 

c. UCSAR sync check (byte 3, bit 6) 

d. PSE sync check (byte 3, bit 7) 



18 3211 Printer and 3811 Control Unit 



3. Print quality (byte 1 , bit 2) 

a. Platen failed to advance (byte 2, bit 3) 

b. Platen failed to retract (byte 2, bit 4) 

c. Ribbon motion (byte 2, bit 6) 

4. Line position (byte 1 , bit 3) always has one or more of 
the following. 

a. Carriage failed to move (byte 2, bit 0) 

b. Carriage sequence check (byte 2, bit 1) 

c. Carriage stop check (byte 2, bit 2) 

5. Mechanical motion (byte 1 , bit 6) 

a. Cancel key. 

b. Device-end time-out 

6. With byte 1, no bits 

a. Train overload (byte 2, bit 7) 

b. UCSAR sync check (byte 3, bit 6) 

A sync check has occurred before a channel end 
of a write command, and no device end is pending. 

c. PES sync check (byte 3, bit 7) 

A sync check has occurred before a channel end 
of a write command, and no device end is pending. 



(Byte 0, Bit 6) Load Check 

This bit is set when: 

1 . The load UCSB command is terminated before all 432 
positions have been assigned a data code. 

2. During the execution of a load FCB command one or 
both of the following occurred: 

a. An invalid FCB code was received from the channel. 

b. The load was terminated without a flag bit (bit 3) 
in the last channel code transferred. 



(Byte 0, Bit 7) Channel 9 

This bit is set when a channel 9 code is sensed in- the FCB 
during a carriage-space operation. This bit is not set during 
skipping operations. 



SENSE BYTE 1: PROGRAMMING 



(Byte 0, Bit 4) Data Check 

This bit is set due to: 

1 . Print check (byte 1 , bit 1) set by a non-compare between 
the UCSB and PLB with block data check off. 

2. Line position (byte 1 , bit 3) indicates that the FCB 
does not contain a channel code to match the channel 
code in the skip command. This condition automatically 
halts the skip at the second occurrence of the FCB 
address one. 

Note: The block data check command is effective only 
for data checks resulting from UCSB/PLB non-compare. 



(Byte 0, Bit 5) Buffer Parity Check 

This bit is set by: 

1 . Command retry (byte 1 , bit 0) 

a. UCSB parity check (byte 3, bit 0) 

A write command is incomplete due to a parity 
check in the UCSB and a non-compare between the 
UCS and the PL buffers. 

2. Line position byte 1 , bit 3) 

a. PLB parity (byte 3, bit 1) during the execution of a 
PLB read command. 

3. (Byte 1, no bits) 

a. UCSB parity (byte 3, bit 0) 

Write command complete or during the execution of 
a UCSB read command. 

b. PLB parity (byte 3, bit 1) 

During the execution of a PLB read command. 

c. FCB parity (byte 3, bit 2) 

During the execution of FCB read command. 



(Byte 1, Bit 0) Command Retry 

This bit is set if a parity error is detected in the PLB during 
printing, or if a parity error in the UCSB prevents the print 
line from being completed. 

1 . With buffer parity check (byte 0, bit 5): Indicates UCSB 
parity check (byte 3, bit 0) 

2. With equipment check (byte 0, bit 3): Indicates PLB 
parity check (byte 3, bit 1) 

When the command retry bit is set, the following condi- 
tions are present. 

1 . Positions in error are not printed and are indicated in 
the check planes. See "Check Read Command." 

2. Carriage motion for the failing command is suppressed. 

3. At this time, the recovery procedure given under 
"Byte 1, Bit 0, Suggested Error-Recovery Procedures" 
must be used, or the results are unpredictable. 



(Byte 1, Bit 1) Print Check 

This bit is set when the print line in process contains one or 
more print errors. The condition is indicated by: 

1. Coil protect (byte 3, bit 3) 

2. Hammer fire check (byte 3, bit 4) 

3. UCSAR sync check (byte 3, bit 6) 

4. PSE sync check (byte 3 , bit 7) 

5. UCSB parity (byte 3, bit 0) 

A write command is incomplete due to a parity check in 
UCSB and a non-compare between the UCSB and the 
PLB. 



Programming Information 19 



(Byte 1, Bit 2) Print Quality 

This bit is set when a machine failure develops that can 
affect print quality; printing may be light or blurred. This 
condition indicates one of the following. 

1. Platen failed to adyance (byte 2, bit 3) 

2. Platen failed to retract (byte 2, bit 4) 

3. Ribbon motion (byte 2, bit 6) 



(Byte 1, Bit 3) Line Position Check 

This bit is set due to: 

1 . Carriage failed to move (byte 2, bit 0) 

2. Carriage sequence check (byte 2, bit 1) 

3. Carriage stop check (byte 2, bit 2) 

Improper forms movement and synchronization to the 
FCB is indicated. 



(Byte 1, Bit 4) Forms Check 

This bit is set when any of the following conditions occurs. 

1 . Forms jam (byte 2, bit 5) 

2. Channel 1 code sensed in FCB with end of forms or 
stacker full indicated. 

3. Carriage stop/release key on. 

(Byte 1, Bit 5) Command Suppress 

This bit is set when an interface disconnect occurs before 
channel-end status is accepted. No carriage motion or 
printing occurs. 



(Byte 1, Bit 6) Mechanical Motion 

This bit signifies that the command was not completed. 

A timing interlock is initiated each time that channel-end 
status without device end is indicated by the control unit. 
If device end is not available before the end of the time-out 
period, the device is reset and pseudo device end with unit 
check is generated. The cancel key also sets this condition. 



SENSE BYTE 2: MECHANICAL 

(Byte 2, Bit 0) Carriage Failed to Move 

This bit is set when the specified carriage movement is not 
sensed within the prescribed time period. This condition 
indicates improper form movement and form misalignment 
with the FCB. 



(Byte 2, Bit 2) Carriage Stop 

This bit is set when the carriage does not stop within the 
prescribed time period. Carriage overshoot and forms 
misalignment with the FCB could have occurred. 

(Byte 2, Bit 3) Platen Failed to Advance 

This bit is set when the platen fails to move forward for 
printing, and shadowed or blurred printing can result. 

(Byte 2, Bit 4) Platen Failed to Retract 

This bit is set when the platen does not retract during a 
carriage operation. The printing may be blurred. 

(Byte 2, Bit 5) Forms Jam 

This bit is set when a forms feeding malfunction occurs in 
a forms tractor. This condition may be due to a forms jam, 
ripped or torn form, or form separation. 

(Byte 2, Bit 6) Ribbon Motion 

This bit is set when the ribbon moves to slow or not at all. 

(Byte 2, Bit 7) Train Overload 

This condition is manifested by a variation in the train 
velocity. To prevent damage or motor failure, the train is 
stopped, causing the device to go not-ready. 



SENSE BYTE 3: ELECTRICAL 



(Byte 3, Bit 0) UCSB Parity 

This bit is set when even parity occurs for a code in the 
universal character set buffer. 



(Byte 3, Bit 1) PLB Parity 

This bit is set when even parity occurs for a code in the 
print line buffer. The print line is not completed, and 
carriage motion is suppressed. 



(Byte 2, Bit 1) Carriage Sequence Check 

This bit indicates improper carriage movement and forms > 
misalignment with the FCB. 



(Byte 3, Bit 2) FCB Parity 

This bit is set when even parity occurs for a code in the 
forms control buffer. 



20 3211 Printer and 3 8 1 1 Control Unit 



(Byte 3, Bit 3) Coil Protect 

This bit is set when a print hammer is not reset. 



(Byte 3, Bit 4) Hammer Fire Check 

This bit is set when a malfunction of the print hammer 
circuits occurs. 



(Byte 3, Bit 5) Service Aid 

The setting of this bit does not result in a unit check and 
is selectable only by a service representative. 

(Byte 3, Bit 6) UCSAR Sync Check 

This bit is set when a sync check occurs in the circuitry 
for the universal character set address register. 

Note: A sync check causes a print check, only after 
channel-end status has occurred for a write command and 
device-end status is pending. 



(Byte 3, Bit 7) PSE Sync Check 

This bit is set when a sync check occurs in the print 
scan emitter pulse circuitry. 

Note: A sync check causes a print check, only after 
channel-end status has occurred for a write command 
and device end is pending. 



Programming Information 21 



This page left blank intentionally. 



22 3211 Printer and 381 1 Control Unit 



Suggested Error- Recovery Procedures 



Any printer or control-unit error causes a unit check to be 
set in the status byte. The channel accepts the status byte 
and places it in the channel status word (CSW), bit positions 
32 through 39. 

If unit check (bit 38) is present in the CSW, execute a 
sense command to obtain detailed information about the 
cause of the unit check. 

Following are suggested programming actions if bit 38 is 
present in the CSW. 

Note: Refer to "Sense Information" for a detailed description 
of the causes of the following sense conditions. 



SENSE BYTE 



With Byte 1, Bits 1, 2, or 3 

Indicate that an error recording is required, provide an 
operator intervention-required message, indicate an 
unrecoverable error, and exit from this error-recovery pro- 
cedure. 



With Byte 1, Bit 6 Mechanical Motion 

Provide an operator message, indicate an unrecoverable 
error, and exit from this error-recovery procedure. 

With Byte 7, Bits 0-1-2-3-6 Off 

An equipment check was detected but had no effect on 
command execution. 



Byte 0, Bit Command Reject 

Action: 

Provide an operator message, indicate an unrecoverable 

error, and exit from this error-recovery procedure. 



Byte 0, Bit 4 Data Check 

Data check signifies that a compare for a code could not be 
made in the UCSB or FCB. To determine which buffer (or 
possibly both), examine sense byte 1 . 



Byte 0, Bit 1 Intervention Required 

Analyze sense bits detailed under "Byte 0, Bit 1" of "Sense 
Information," provide an operator message, and exit from 
the error-recovery procedure. After the printer is made 
ready, restart the program from a logical restart point. 



Byte 7, Bit 1 Print Check 

Print check signifies that the data check is in the UCSB. 
The last line is incomplete, and the information is 
questionable. 



Byte 0, Bit 2 Bus-Out Check 

Action: 

Retry the operation. If the error recurs, provide an operator 
message, and indicate an unrecoverable error. Exit from 
this error-recovery procedure. 



Byte 0, Bit 3 Equipment Check 

Action: 



Byte 1, Bit 3 Line Position 

Line position signifies that the data check is in the FCB. 

Action: 

The following sequence should be performed. 

1 . Indicate that an error recording is required 

2. Generate an intervention-required operator message. 

3. The operator has the following options. 

a. Correct the error condition and continue. 

b. Cause an unrecoverable I/O error indication by 
activating the cancel key. 



With Byte 1, Bit Command Retry 

Reissue the failing CCW. Only the error positions are 

retried. If the error recurs: 

1 . Issue a skip to channel command (Hex 83) to clear the 

control unit and allow execution of the suppressed 

carriage operation. 



Byte 0, Bit 5 Buffer Parity Check 

Buffer parity check signifies an invalid parity for a code in 
the UCSB or FCB. This condition is reset by reloading the 
particular buffer. To determine which buffer has the parity 
check, interrogate sense byte 1 in the following sequence: 
bit 3; then bit 0. 



Suggested Error-Recovery Procedures 23 



Byte 1, Bit 3 Line Position 

Line position signifies that the parity check is in the FCB. 
The form may be improperly positioned. If a compare 
cannot be made, the carriage stops after two successive 
address-one positions have been detected. 

Action 

Provide an operator message, indicate an unrecoverable 
error, and exit from the error-recovery procedure. Reload 
the FCB after a line-position error. 



Byte 1, Bit Command Retry 

Command retry signifies an invalid parity for a data code 
stored in the UCSB. The line in process is incomplete, and 
the carriage portion of the command is suppressed. 

Action 

Reload the UCSB with the correct data; then reissue the 

failing CCW. Only the error positions are retried. If the 

error recurs: 

1 . Issue a skip to channel command (Hex 83) to clear the 

control unit and allow execution of the suppressed 

carriage operation. 



train containing multiple-character sets or repeated data 
codes, the line in process will be completed. In this 
case, command retry will not be indicated, and the job 
can continue. Unless the UCSB is reloaded, the through- 
put decreases. Also the block-data-check condition has 
been reset. 

Indicate that the UCS buffer should be reloaded, provide a 

message to the operator that reloading is necessary, and 

continue. 

2. Unit-check status presented with channel end and device 
end together indicates that a read command was in 
process. Invalid parity was detected for the buffer 
specified in the command. 



Byte 0, Bit 6 - Load Check 

Action 

Retry the operation. If the error recurs, provide an operator 
message, indicate an unrecoverable error, and exit from this 
error-recovery procedure. 



Byte 1, Bit and 3 OFF 

This condition is a result of: 

1 . Unit-check status presented with device end alone 
indicating an invalid parity was detected for a code in 
the UCSB after a write command was accepted. For a 



Byte 1, Bit 5 - Command Suppress 

Action 

Reissue the command. If the error recurs, provide an 
operator message, indicate an unrecoverable error, and 
exit from the error-recovery procedure. 



24 3211 Printer and 381 1 Control Unit 



Error- Recovery Priority 



When certain malfunctions occur, the CSW may contain 
more than one error indicator. Usually, only one of these 
properly describes the malfunction; the others indicate 
secondary effects. Some printer-control-unit errors can 
set more than one sense bit. 

Check all indicators defined, in the sequence shown in 
Figure 1 1 , until the one caused by the error condition is 
found. This CSW priority scheme recognizes and acts upon 
the primary error indicator. 

If bit 38 is not present in the CSW, performing a sense 
command to check the sense byte data is not necessary. 
Check the CSW indicators until the one caused by the error 
condition is found. 



Error Recovery Priority Sequence 




Status 


Sense 


Sense 




Priority 


Bit 


Byte 


Bit 


Condition 


1 


45 






Channel Control Check 


2 


46 






Interface Control Check 


3 


44 






Channel Data Check 


4 


38 






Unit Check 


5 







3 


Equipment Check 


6 







2 


Bus-Out Check 


7 







4 


Data Check 


8 







5 


Buffer Parity Check 


9 










Command Reject 


10 







6 


Load Check 


11 







1 


Intervention Required 


12 




1 


5 


Command Suppress 


13 







7 


Channel 9 


14 


42 






Program Check 


15 


43 






Protection Check 


16 


41 






Incorrect Length 


* 


35 






Busy 


* 


36 






Channel End 


* 


37 






Device End 


* 


39 






Unit Exception 


* 


40 






Program Controlled Interrupt 



* Note: These items are normal conditions. Priority of checking is not 
specified for these items. 

Figure 11. Error Recovery Priority Sequence 



Suggested Error-Recovery Procedures 25 



Operating Information 



KEYS AND LIGHTS 

Figures 12 and 13 show the operating keys and lights. 

Power On 

This light indicates that power is applied to the printer. 



Form Check 

This light indicates a form-feeding condition (such as jammed 
or torn forms, end-of-form) that requires operator attention. 
When this light turns on, the printer ready light goes out. 
To turn out the form check light, correct the condition that 
caused the stoppage and press the check reset key. 



End-of-Form 

This light indicates that 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) or less of a 
form remains below the print line and forms runout is 
imminent. When this light turns on, printer ready light goes 
off, and the printer stops. Normal printer operation may be 
resumed by pressing the printer ready key. Printing then 
continues until the carriage reaches channel 1 . Then the 
printer ready light again goes out, and the forms check 
light comes on. The printer cannot be restarted until the 
forms have been replenished and the check reset key pressed. 
Replenishing the forms turns out the end-of-form light. 
Operating the check reset key turns out the forms check 
light. 



Carriage Check 

This light indicates a forms-movement condition: 

a. Forms movement did not conform to the carriage 
instruction. The carriage either failed to move, moved 
too far, or moved without a signal. 

b. An initiated carriage skip occurred, and one unprinted 
form is above the print line. 



Print Check 

This light indicates that a print error occurred in the last 
line printed. If the error was caused by a coil-protect 
condition, the check reset light is also on. 



POWER ON 



VACUUM 



PLATEN 



CANCEL 



END OF 
FORM 



PRINT 
CHECK 



CARRIAGE 
CHECK 



SINGLE 
CYCLE 



FORM 
CHECK 



RIBBON 
CHECK 



COVER 



CHECK 
RESET 



STACKER 



PRINTER 
READY 



Figure 12. Operator's Panel (Front) 

26 321 1 Printer and 381 1 Control Unit 



CARRIAGE 

STOP/ 
RELEASE 



CARRIAGE 
SPACE 



CARRIAGE 
RESTORE 




Vacuum 

This light indicates that the type cleaner vacuum bag 
requires attention. Emptying and replacing this bag turns 
off the light. 



Carriage Space 

This advances the carriage one space. The key is active only 
when the printer is not ready (printer ready light out). The 
operation of this key also stops the meter. 



Ribbon 

This light indicates improper movement or folding of the 
ribbon. Correcting the condition turns off the light. 



Platen 

This light indicates improper platen operation. 



Cancel Key 

The cancel key , located on the control panel, enables the 
operator to indicate to the program that an unrecoverable 
error has occurred. Operating this key causes a unrecover- 
able error to be program-recorded, and the job either 
cancelled or left to the discretion of the program. 
Inadvertent operation of this key can, depending upon the 
program option, cancel the job in process. 



Stacker 

This light indicates that the stacker is full. The printer 
stops, and the ready light goes off. By unloading the 
stacker, the stacker light is extinguished; and pressing the 
print ready key restores the printer to a ready condition. 



Single Cycle 

This key makes the printer ready (ready light turns on) if 
none of the following conditions exist: 

1 . The form check light is on. 

2. A mechanical interlock is open in the printer. 

3. Either the front or rear stop key is held operated. 
The printer then remains ready until a write command 

is executed. At initial selection for the next command 
(after the single write command is executed), unit^check 
status (bit 6) is presented to the channel because sense 
bit 1 (Intervention Required) is on. If another single-cycle 
operation is desired, press the single cycle key again. If, 
however, the operator does not want further single-cycle 
operations, he presses the start key to return to normal 
continuous operation. Note that for single-cycle operation, 
the printer goes not-ready, only after a write command is 
executed. Therefore, if the single cycle key is pressed, 
commands (such as a control command to skip) are pro- 
cessed until a write command is executed. Then the printer 
goes not-ready. 



Carriage Stop/Release 

This key light is normally off when the carriage is in 
operation. Pressing this key causes the backlight to come 
on, indicating that power has been removed from the 
tractor drive motor to permit manual operation of the 
tractors during a setup operation. When the light is off, 
the tractors are locked in a fixed position and turn only 
under the carriage spacing and skipping control. When the 
carriage release key has been operated and the light is on, 
the printer is in a not-ready state. Second operation of the 
carriage stop/release key is required to put out the light 
before establishing printer ready. Another function of this 
key is in an emergency carriage runaway condition when 
the carriage failed to stop after a long skip or spacing 
operation. Pressing this key disengages the carriage drive 
and stops the printer by causing a not-ready condition to 
be set. However, this key should not be used as a stop key 
when the printer is operating under a normal job condition 
because the operation of this key allows the forms-feeding 
operation of the tractors to get out of synchronism with 
the job in process. 



Check Reset 

This key /light can reset a print check or forms check. 
Whenever the 321 1 printer is not-ready or not-busy, this 
key initiates a general printer reset. Pressing the check 
reset key should restore the machine to operable condition. 



Printer Ready 

This key /light puts the 321 1 in a ready condition and 
signals the control unit to initiate a device end. When the 
printer goes ready, the printer ready light comes on. If 
the end-of-form light is on and no paper jam exists, this 
key acts as a start key to cause normal printer operation 
to continue until the end of that form. For convenience, 
another printer ready key (without the light), is at the 
rear of the machine. 



Cover 

The operation of this key causes the printer cover to 
either rise to a fully open position (if closed) or to close 
fully unless obstructed. If the cover is blocked by an 
obstruction, the cover reverts to a fully opened position 
and remains there until the cover key is pressed again. 



Suggested Error-Recovery Procedures 27 



Carriage Restore 

This key /light advances the carriage until a channel 1 code 
is detected. If the carriage stop/release key light is on, 
the forms do not move. The carriage restore key is 
effective only when the printer is not-ready (printer ready 
light is out). When this key is pressed, the usage meter 
stops. For convenience, another carriage restore key 
(without the light) is at the rear of the printer. The light 
section of the carriage restore key is turned on when the 
first channel 1 code in the FCB is detected, and the printer 
is in the not-ready condition. 



Stop 

This key stops the printer at the end of any operation in 
process. For convenience, another stop key is at the rear 
of the printer. 



MANUAL CONTROLS 



Print Unit Release Lever 

This lever locks the print unit in printing position. Releasing 
this lever permits the print unit to be opened for access 
to the forms path. 



STACKER RATE 


3 


2 1 4 


1 °±° 5 


o /^ n^^x 


SLOW o f /^^s. \ ° FAST 








CARRIAGE 










RESTORE 






PRINTER 




STOP 






READY 















Figure 13. Operator's Panel (Rear) 



Tractor Locating Pins 

A spring-loaded pin in the right-hand tractor snaps into 
locating holes in the tractor mounting bar. These holes 
are spaced at quarter-inch (6,4 mm) intervals to 
accommodate varying widths of forms. The spring-loaded 
pin (latch) in each left-hand tractor permits positioning 
that tractor in one of four holes spaced at quarter-inch 
(6,4 mm) intervals. These latches provide for coarse 
horizontal alignment of the forms with the print positions. 



Shift Forms (b«*fl) 

This knob adjusts the spacing horizontally by shifting 
the forms either left or right for alignment. 



Tighten Forms 

This knob moves all tractors for fine horizontal alignment 
of the forms with the print positions. 



Advance Forms 

This knob moves the tractors for coarse vertical alignment 
of the forms with the print line. Set the Advance Forms 
(Fine) at its mid position before making the coarse 



adjustment with the paper advance knob. The carriage 
stop/release light must be on. 



Advance Forms (Fine) 

This knob moves the tractors for fine vertical adjustment 
of the forms with the print line. The carriage stop/release 
light must be off. 



Print Density Control Knob 

This knob adjusts the print density. 

Stacker Rate Knob 

The stacker rate knob at the rear of the printer sets the 
speed control for the stacker rise during its self-adjusting 
cycle. Positioning this knob between fast and slow 
compensates for forms thickness to establish the rate for 
optimum stacking. 

Stacker Adjusting Lever 

This lever disengages the stacker assembly for manually 
raising or lowering the stacker. 



28 3211 Printer and 381 1 Control Unit 



INTERLOCKS 



Interlocks assure proper mechanical operation of the 
printer. Check these when printer ready can not be 
established. 



Platen Interlock 

The platen interlock occurs when the platen is not fully 
retracted before the print unit is closed. 



Cartridge Interlock 

The cartridge interlock occurs when the interchangeable 
train cartridge is not properly seated in the print unit. 

Print Unit Interlock 

A print unit interlock occurs when the print unit gate is 
not fully closed. 

Note: These interlocks are not indicated by individual 
lights; therefore, the operator must check for any of the 
interlock conditions when the ready light does not turn on 
after the printer ready key is pressed. 

METERING 

The meter starts with the first write command if the CPU 
meter is running. It continues to run, while the CPU meter 
is running, until a manual space or restore is initiated. 



Suggested Error-Recovery Procedures 29 



Appendix 



Error-Recovery Procedure Summary 
Sense Byte Sense Byte 1 



Bit 

Pos Name 

Command 
Reject 



Bit 
Pos Name 



Probable Cause 



Invalid command 







2 


Print Quality 


Platen failed to advance 
ribbon motion & ribbon 

skew. 






4 


Forms Check 


Carriage stop/release off 
Jam or torn forms 




Intervention 






Out of paper. 


1 


Required 






Stacker full. 






No 


Interlock 


Gate not latched. 




(Not Ready) 


Bits 


Condition 


Train riot positioned. 
Stop key activated. 
Vacuum check (low, high, 
external). 
Train overload. 


2 


Bus Out 




NotCE&DE 
CE&DE 


Invalid parity on command. 
Invalid parity on data Xfer. 









Command 
Retry 


PLB parity check. 






1 


Print Check 


Hammer fire check. 
Sync check. 
Coil protect. 






2 


Print Quality 


Platen failed to advance. 
Platen failed to retract. 


3 


Equipment 






Ribbon motion/skew. 




Check 


3 


Line Position 


Carriage failed to move. 
Carriage sequence. 
Carriage stop. 






6 


Mechanical 
motion. 


Time out. 






No 




Transparent sync checks. 






Bits 




Train overload. 


4 


Data Check 


1 


Print Check 


Non compare UCSB. 






3 


Line Position 


Non compare FCB. 









Command 
Retry 


Parity check UCSB. 


5 


Buffer Parity 


3 


Line Position 


Parity check FCB. 




Check 


No 


Write Com- 
mand 


Parity check UCSB. 






Bits Complete 








No 


UCSB Read 
Command 


Parity check UCSB. 






Bits FCB Read 


Parity check FCB. 








Command 










PLB Read 


Parity check PLB. 








Command 




6 


Load Check 






UCSB 
FCB 


7 


Channel 9 






Normal occurrence. 






5 


CMD 

Suppressed 


Interface disconnect. 



30 3211 Printer and 381 1 Control Unit 



Index 



advance forms 28 

advance forms (fine) 28 

allow data check 16 

array 7 

automatic forms-thickness adjustment 

bit 3 busy 17 

bit 4 channel end 17 

bit 5 device end 17 

bit 6 unit check 17 

bit 7 unit exception 17 

block data check 14 

byteO 

bit command reject 18, 23 

bit 1 intervention required 18, 23 

bit 2 bus-out check 18, 23 

bit 3 equipment check 18, 23 

bit 4 data check 19, 23 

bit 5 buffer parity check 19, 23 

bit 6 load check 19, 23 

bit 7 channel 9 19 
byte 1 

bit command retry 19, 23 24 

bit 1 print check 19, 23 

bit 2 print quality 20 

bit 3 line position check 20, 24 

bit 4 forms check 20 

bit 5 command suppress 20, 24 

bit 6 mechanical motion 20, 23 
byte 2 

bit carriage failed to move 20 

bit 1 carriage sequence check 20 

bit 2 carriage stop 20 

bit 3 platen failed to advance 20 

bit 4 platen failed to retract 20 

bit 5 form jam 20 

bit 6 ribbon motion 20 

bit 7 train overload 20 
byte 3 

bit UCSB parity 20 

bit 1 PLB parity 20 

bit 2 FCB parity 20 

bit 3 coil protect 21 

bit 4 hammer fire check 21 

bit 5 service aid 21 

bit 6 UCSAR sync check 21 

bit 7 PSE sync check 21 

cancel key 27 

carriage check 26 

carriage control 12 

carriage control commands 13 

carriage performance 8 

carriage restore 28 

carriage space. 27 

carriage stop/release 27 

cartridge interlock 29 

channel code 10, 11 

channel communications 12 

channel operations and controls 12 

check read 16 

check reset 27 

commands 12 

cover 27 

data byte 10 
diagnostic gate 16 



diagnostic write 16 
diagnostic write command 16 

end-of-form 26 
error-recovery priority 25 
error-recovery procedure summary 30 
extended binary coded decimal interchange code 
and quadrants IS 



flag bit 10 

fold 14 

forms and speed considerations 7 

forms check 26 

forms control 

address register 12 

buffer 10 

buffer (FCB) layout 11 

initializing and diagnostic 12 
initializing and diagnostic commands 14 
interlocks 29 

keys and lights 26 

load FCB 14 
load UCSB 14 

manual controls 28 
metering 29 
motorized cover 5 

No-Op 14 

operating information 26 
operator's panel (front) 26 
operator's panel (rear) 28 

parity bit 12 

parity check bit 10 

platen 27 

platen interlock 29 

power on 26 

power stacker 5 

print buffer address register 12 

print check 26 

print density control knob 28 

print error check bit 10 

print line buffer 10 

print line complete bit 10 

print rate 7 

print train sets 8 

print unit interlock 29 

print unit release lever 28 

printer ready 27 

printing method 6 

program-controlled carriage 5 

programming information 10 



raise cover 
read FCB 
read PLB 
read UCSB 



16 
16 
16 

16 



ribbon 9, 27 

sense 12 

sense byte reset 18 



12 



Index 31 



sense byte 23 

sense byte 0; summary 18 

sense byte 1 ; programming 19 

sense byte 2; mechanical 20 

sense byte 3; electrical 20 

sense information 18 

shift forms (L-R) 28 

single cycle 27 

stacker 27 

stacker adjusting lever 28 

stacker rate knob 28 

status byte 17 

status byte format 17 

stop 28 

storage addressing 12 

storage areas 10 

suggested error-recovery procedures 23 

test I/O 12 
tighten forms 28 
tractor locating pins 28 
type arrangements 9 

unfold 14 

universal character set 5 

universal character set address register 12 

universal character set buffer 10 



27 



write 12 

write commands with carriage controls 1 3 

write without spacing 16 

3216 interchangeable train cartridge 5 
3811 control-unit operation 10 



32 321 1 Printer and 3811 Control Unit 



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321 1 Printer and 381 1 Control Unit Component Description 



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